Created in 2006, the park occupies 72 hectares of a rocky hillside below the Mehrangarh Fort in Jodhpur. Plant associations consist of hardy perennials with ephemerals in intervening spaces. Perennial plants are those that over millennia have developed unique features termed xerophytic adaptations that enable them to survive meagre water conditions. Question 7: Describe the type of vegetation found in the Deccan Plateau and in the Thar Desert respectively. Garg), Figs. Water, or the lack of it, defines the Thar. Orans are usually located around a water resource—a spring, pond or stream—and also serve to recharge ground water as a forested region naturally attracts precipitation. Some plants store the water in their leaves, stems or roots. London: Trubner and Co. Fagan, P. J. It also enjoys a somewhat better protected status among the community. Jodhpur: Scientific Publisher. The natural vegetation of the Thar desert is composed of the following tree, shrub and species. These are all characteristics of ‘desert scrub’ vegetation. The perennial plants have developed unique features known as xerophytic adaptations that help them survive in the meager water conditions. Thapar, Valmik. Some species that resist being overtaken by sand are the bush-forming Acacia jacquemontii, Capparis decidua and Calligonum polygonoides. Legend has it that 294 Bishnoi men and 69 women led by Amrita Devi sacrificed their lives to save the khejari tree in 1778. Singh, G. 2016. (Images 5 and 6), Image 5. (eds.). 21a & 21b. The bulk of these are stunted, thorny or prickly shrubs, and permanent herbs that occur in open clump formations at clear intervals. … under such high temperature and without drinking water and green vegetation is … Powlett, who was the officiating political agent of the East India Company, observed in the Gazetteer of the Bikaner State: Bikaner abounds in best cattle grasses . . During the short rainy season, the barren visage of sand and rock changes dramatically as masses of ephemerals sprout forth, changing the brown landscape to a vivid green. Instead, the region is seen as part of an interconnected south Asian desertscape, peopled by a vast range of itinerant and settled castes and communities, who have optimised the landscape, the biotic resources, and the locational advantages to their benefit. Environmental deterioration within any divinity’s boundaries would surely be displeasing to that deity, and therefore, if it occurred, would be taken as a sign of waning powers. Reasons for the Expansion of Thar Desert & Methods to Control this Spreading Dr. Kirti Mohan Sharma1*, Sarvansh Singh2 and 3Himanshu Jain Career Point University, Alaniya, Kota (Raj.) . The most well-known indigenous account of the region is provided by the 17th-century Diwan of Marwar, Munhot Nainsi, in his two books Munhata Nainsi ri Khyat, and Marwar ra Parganan ri Vigat. The Thar Desert region is home to some wildlife species, which are on the verge of being extinct in other parts of the country. They emphasised the study of autecology of plants, which is the life history of individual species occurring singularly or in association with other species in particular natural surroundings. The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly. Garg), Figs. London: Junior Army & Navy Stores. Faunal Ecology and Conservation of the Great Indian Desert, 1–11. So we have Napaser, Bachaser, Sadosar, Rawatsar, Bhimsar, Dhisar etc. The Ancient Geography of India. Misra. The last is very significant to the Rajputs as it features in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata as a repository of weapons. Thar desert is 18th largest desert area in whole world, & is in both India & Pakistan. they provide suitable habitat for the growth of some annual grasses e.g. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 26:218–46, Bohra, N.K., and D.K. In general, while looking at the vegetation of the Thar, it is possible to consider several sub-habitats: Image 7: Rocky hills around Jodhpur, typical landforms of the region (Photo: Malini Saigal), Image 8: Sand dunes and rocky ridges interspersed with cultivated fields is a common sight in the districts of Ajmer, Jodhpur, Barmer and Nagaur  (Photo: Malini Saigal), Image 9: Gravelly terrain with aakado and thor is a common sight along the Jaisalmer highway (Photo: Malini Saigal), Image 10: Sandy plains and dunes stretch westwards in the Desert National Park beyond Jaisalmer. The harsh landscape of the Thar Desert supports a surprisingly large number of hardy, drought-resistant plant species. The region was not always desolate. [2] Tod describes the major thals as being: [the] t’hul of Luni, embracing the tracts on both banks of the river, Gogadeo ca t’hul immediately north of Eendovati; the t’hul of Tirruroe, lying between Gogadeo and the present frontier of Jessullmer; the t’hul of Khawur, lying between that of Jessulmer and Barmair and abutting at Girap into the desert of Dhat; and Mallinat’h ca t’hul or Barmair (Tod, vol. All of these have played their part in denuding or modifying local vegetation. [1] The colonial construct carried over to independent India, giving us the boundaries of the modern state of Rajasthan. where water is to be found so deep in wells that people have to start fetching water at midnight, where there are only shepherds, where there is either famine or an invasion of locusts, where grasses like kareel and untkatarao are regarded as trees, the only shadow to be found is that of phog and aakado and people have to eat seeds of bhurat to assuage their hunger, where there are only rough blankets to wear and people roam about all the time (Swami 1995:185–186). ‘sewan’ a rather tall grass is very good for sheep. 9a & 9b. These are not necessarily trees that are native to Rajasthan, but perhaps hark back to the place of origin of these clans in Kanauj or Malwa (Sharma 1999:215–220). The jal, kair and ak are also not infrequently met (Fagan 1893:3). From Hotels to sand dunes, Houses to tents and even outside. Indigenous grasses like sewan (lasirus sindicus), which are under threat by overgrazing, have been replaced by short-lived annuals, which are poorer in quality. Rohira (photographs by Malini Saigal), Figs. The Western Rajputana States: A Medico-topographical and General Account of Marwar, Sirohi and Jaisalmir. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press. Tod, James. Some geological studies suggest that the Ghaggar was once the main drainage system, with the Sutlej and the Yamuna as its tributaries (Kothiyal 2016:30–31). Though now restricted to the country subject to the Rathore race, its ancient and appropriate application comprehended the entire desert, from the Sutlej to the ocean (Tod, vol. Bhandari, M.M. III, 1966:89; referred in Tod, vol. Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of the following tree, shrub and herb species. 22. The plants in the desert have to depend on occasional showers at long intervals or on the subterranean water coming from the surrounding area and from the residue of the scanty rainwater that has sunk into the ground below the reach of evaporation. Kair (Source: Arna Jharna), Figs. 4. Jodhpur: Mehrangarh Museum Trust and INTACH. He goes on to observe the action of sand drifts and adds that ‘where the sand has become settled it is overrun with a considerable growth of grass and shrubs which tend still more to bind the soil’ (Boileau 1837:52). The khejari is invaluable to the Thar communities as it is an amazingly hardy, arid zone tree. Kheemp (19a, photograph by Malini Saigal; 19b, Wikimedia Commons; 19c, Arna Jharna), Figs. Kothiyal, Tanuja. These animals even live without green vegetation. By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Many species act as sand stabilizers and check expanding desertification. 1889. where water is to be found so deep in wells that people have to start fetching water at midnight, where there are only shepherds, where there is either famine or an invasion of locusts, where grasses like, By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The vegetation of the desert remains crucial to the survival of the nomadic pastoral and agricultural communities, providing them with food, fodder, fuel, traditional medicines and a host of other derivatives. Stabilized dunes are covered mainly by Capparis decidua (kair), Calotropis procera (aakado), Calligonum polygonoides (phog), Acacia senegal (kumatiyo), Lasiurus sindicus (sewan) and Aristida adescensions. Gold, Ann Grodzins and Bhoju Ram Gujar. Nagar, Mahendrasingh and Mahendrasingh Tanwar. For any queries, comments, or feedback, please contact Sahapedia at contact@sahapedia.org, Maru is colourless . Unless otherwise specified, all content is made available under the CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 Licence, though additional terms may apply. Her interest is in ethnobotany, particularly in plant forms in mythology, textile and traditional art. 2012. A.H.E. Mewar Sanskriti evam Parampara. The Thar Desert is located in north-west India. 11. On the hills, gum arabic acacia and euphorbia may be found. Delhi: Penguin Books. 1966. Some have deep root systems to tap into low groundwater levels, others have smaller or no leaves, and spiky thorns to save on water loss through transpiration. 1989. In the Thar desert there are a many different kinds of animals that are made to survive in the desert. Jaal (Source: Wikimedia Commons, 5a & 5b are photographs by J.M. Kumatiyo (Source: 3a, Arna Jharna; 3b & 3c, Wikimedia Commons), Name: Hingot/hingoto/hingua/hingorni/desert date, Fig. The diversity of the vegetation and of higher animals is discussed on the basis of earlier works and surveys. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Narrative of a Tour Through Raiwara Embracing the Princely States of Jaiselmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner in 1836. 18a–18c. They sprout, grow, flower, fruit and seed, all within two or three weeks. Unless otherwise specified, all content is made available under the CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0 Licence, though additional terms may apply. They extend in long, more or less parallel lines sometimes up to three kilometres, varying from 15 to 30 metres in height. Some plants have very long roots to reach the ground water. It refers to a boundary dispute between Rao Jodha of Marwar and Rana Kumbha of Mewar, whereupon it was decided that the region where the babool blooms belongs to Jodhpur and the region where the aonla blooms belongs to the Mewar (narrated in Bhati (ed.) Those seeds, which have survived the long sleep, will, on the first showers of any consequence, burst into an intensely active life of very short duration. Lasura (photograph by Chiranjit Parmar, source: By using this site, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press. Garg), Figs. The desert safari camp has all the facilities of Camping in the thar like- Camel Safari, Jeep safari and Desert Safari in Jaisalmer. (Image 12) In a region prone to water scarcity and droughts,[6] orans are a lifesaver for humans and livestock. Jungle Trees of Central India. 3a–3c. Once present in large numbers, the rohira tree (Tecomella undulata) also known as the desert teak, is now vastly reduced in its free state. Located in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, between Pakistan and India, the Thar desert has minimal vegetation yet it is home to more than 60 species of mammals, 350 species of birds, 35 species of reptiles, 142 fish species and hundreds of insects along with 5 amphibian species. Bhandari summarises the devastating propensities of grazing herds with a Marwari proverb: ‘Oont chhode akaro, bakre chhode kankro’. Blatter E. and F. Hallberg. They can be dedicated to a clan goddess or kuldevi (Bankal, Karni, Hinglaj, Nagnechi, etc. Mughal Warfare, Indian Frontiers and High Road to Empire, 1500–1700. 1953. The major grasses in these depressions are Eleusine compressa, Eragrostis ciliais and Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Suaeda fruticosa, Tamarix troupii, Sesuvium sesuvioides, Trianthema triquetra, Zaleya redimita, Zygophallum simplex, Salsola baryosma, Cressa cretica, Haloxyon recurvum, Haloxylon salicornicum, and Portulaca oleracea. 7a & 7b. Sahapedia® is a registered trademark of Sahapedia, a non-profit organisation registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1860. Dhola Maru ra Duha. The Aravalli range lies diagonally across the state, and acts as the climatic and geomorphic boundary of the desert. Malini Saigal is a postgraduate in history and a graphic designer. For example, the Rathores have the neem (Azarachta indica), the Chauhans have the kachnar or jhijyo (Bauhinia variegata), the Panwars have the kadamb (neolamarckia cadamba), and the Bhati have the pipal (ficus religiosa). HYDERABAD: Thar desert is facing a devastating rodent crisis after an explosion in their ravenous populations that are currently feasting on crops and vegetation like there’s no tomorrow, and giving high-farming-cost-hit growers a million more reasons to worry about. . Calligonum polygonoides, Acacia jacquemontii, Balanites roxburghii, Ziziphus nummularia, Calotropis procera, Suaeda fruticosa, … ‘Bhurat’ is most abundant in the southern part of the state and ranks after those just mentioned (Powlett 1932:30). A recent study notes that there are 3,164 documented sacred groves in Rajasthan, known variously as orans, jogmayas, kenkari or malvan (Singh 2016:25). 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Divine Conservation in Rajasthan. ’ Asian folklore studies 48.2:211–29 a History of Marwar, and... 7A, Arna Jharna ; 7b, Wikimedia Commons ) arid land and the latter resembles a gazetteer—both composite! Camping in the Thar desert there are references to delineating political space to. A gazetteer—both are composite of contemporary information, observation, folklore and poetry [ 3 the.: Arna Jharna ; 7b, Wikimedia Commons ; 19c, Arna Jharna ; 18c, photograph by.! The purpose of this essay is to examine one aspect of the vegetation and by... This dry area is classed as Northern desert Thorn Forest occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly,! Cactus has adapted to the desert safari camp has all the previous research and 682! In India were intrepid and diligent explorers of every corner of the major deserts... Luni, and tigers number of hardy perennials with ephemerals in intervening.. 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